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Marketers of penis enlargement products exploit fears of inadequacy, but there is no consensus in the scientific community of any non-surgical technique that permanently increases either the thickness or length of the erect penis that already falls into the normal range.Males may quite easily underestimate the size of their own penis relative to that of others, because of the foreshortening obtained from looking down, due to repeated observation of atypical penises in pornography, or because of the accumulation of fat at the base of the penis.Stretched length has correlated with erect length in some cases.Scientific studies have been performed on the erect length of the adult penis.Penis size is positively correlated with increasing testosterone levels during puberty.Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also involved in penis size, with deficiency (such as that observed in growth hormone deficiency or Laron syndrome) at critical developmental stages having the potential to result in micropenis.Studies that have relied on self-measurement, including those from Internet surveys, consistently reported a higher average length than those that used medical or scientific methods to obtain measurements.The following staff-measured studies are composed of different subgroups of the human population (i.e., specific age range or race; selection of those with sexual medical concerns or self-selection) that could cause a sample bias.
As of 2015 Flaccid penis length is generally a poor predictor of erect length.
While results vary slightly across reputable studies, the consensus is that the mean human penis, when erect, is in the range 12.9–15 cm (5.1–5.9 in) in length with a 95% confidence interval of (10.7 cm, 19.1 cm) or, equivalently (4.23 in, 7.53 in) — that is, it is 95% certain that the true mean is at least 10.7 cm but not more than 19.1 cm. of medical research on the topic over the previous 30 years published in BJU International showed similar results, giving mean flaccid, stretched non-erect, and erect lengths of 9.16 cm, 13.24 cm, and 13.12 cm respectively, and mean flaccid and erect circumferences of 9.31 cm and 11.66 cm respectively.
Erect lengths in the included studies were measured by pushing the pre-pubic fat pad to the bone, and flaccid or erect girth (circumference) was measured at the base or mid-shaft of the penis.
Operations are also available to increase penis size in cases of micropenis in adults.
Endocrine disruption resulting from chemical exposure has been linked to genital deformation in both sexes (among many other problems).